Toolkit: European Arrest Warrants
Suppose you were NSA whistle blower Edward Snowden, or fictional international spy Jason Bourne, and the most powerful intelligence agencies on the planet were hunting you. Today there is no international law which obliges countries to hand over wanted criminals. In 2014, they refused to extradite a man accused of terrorism, despite having an extradition treaty with Belgium. Passport and seize your U. All three offer excellent lifestyle and business opportunities, and are ideal safe havens, as they do not have extradition treaties. National Central Bureau means any body provided for in Articles 32 and 33 of the Organization’s Constitution. Simon Forslund is drinking a Zesty Blood Orange Cider by Bulmers Cider at Interpool. As of November 2000, OIA had 3,636 extradition cases pending approximately 1,100 cases where fugitives wanted by foreign governments were believed to be in the United States and approximately 2,500 cases where fugitives wanted by the United States were believed to be in foreign countries. There are ongoing negotiations to resolve this conflict. 45 1 The reasons for the refusal of surrender contained in a relevant extradition agreement, other than a multilateral extradition agreement, or the absence of reasons for refusal in such an agreement, prevail over sections 46 and 47. You might not interested in living according to the type of local culture of these Middle Eastern countries, but places like Dubai are home to large international communities and offer luxurious and comfortable lifestyles. Upon the expiration of the period of fifteen days, or, if directions in the nature of habeas corpus are issued, after the decision of the court upon the return to the directions, as the case may be, or after such further period as may be allowed in either case by the Minister, the Minister may by warrant under his hand order the fugitive criminal, if not set at liberty on the decision of the court, to be surrendered to such person as is in his opinion, duly authorized to receive the fugitive criminal by the country from which the requisition for the surrender proceeded, and the fugitive criminal shall be surrendered accordingly. Where there may be reasonable cause for delay to a surrender after the required period, an extension to the time limit may be sought from the court. Of Brittney Griner, an American woman convicted of a marijuana crime in Russia, for Viktor Bout, a Russian man convicted of illegal arms dealing in the U. Mr Martin said police have two choices if countries refuse to extradite suspects. 31 Brian Laghi and Erin Anderssen, “War crimes Extradition Bill Called Weak,” The Globe and Mail Toronto, 23 November 1998. University of South Africa provides funding as a partner of The Conversation AFRICA. Subscribe to our packages. US https://www.chordie.com/forum/profile.php?id=1550746 Foreign Assistance. For example, an extradition treaty between the United States and Canada would be useless if a fugitive instead went south to Mexico, so the U. Each week, we explore unique solutions to some of the world’s biggest problems. Prosecutors may apply for a TaCA warrant and consideration as to whether to make a referral for an extradition request to be made to a non EU country where appropriate for a person in respect of offences which pass the Full Code Test. The nationality exception to extradition has experienced a significant decline with the coming into force of the European Arrest Warrant EAW framework decision in 2004. If this pre condition is not satisfied, then the bar cannot operate in that case Jaroslav Atraskevic v Prosecutor General’s Office, Republic of Lithuania EWHC 131 Admin. There appears to be at least one additional exception: if the fugitive is under sentence in the asylum state, he need not be extradited until his punishment in the asylum state is completed.
In addition to Green Notices, Interpol also issues Red Notices and Blue Notices. Before we get started with the our selection of the best places to visit, here are some ways you can secure your assets, protect your identity and just maybe disappear completely. There are some countries that do not allow extradition, which means that they will not send criminals back to their home countries if they are accused of a crime. Article 6 of the ECHR also provides for fair trial standards, which must be observed by European countries when making an extradition request. There are no extradition countries with India. “It’s no defense to extradition to say, ‘I’m innocent. This is a non binding arrangement, which aims to increase the level and scope of assistance rendered between Commonwealth Governments in criminal matters. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a party who is unhappy with the decision of the High Court on appeal can ask for permission for a further, final appeal to the Supreme Court. Ad hoc arrangements can be entered into where no such treaty or other legal basis exists. Data on patients with coronavirus appeared on May 10. Citizens of the UK will find that many of the countries mentioned above also do not have extradition treaties with the UK. 2 If, in the case of a person in respect of whom an order has been made under section 47, it appears to a justice of the District Court for the district in which the order was made, that for any reason the police force of the place in which the warrant for arrest was issued no longer require the delivery of that person into their custody he shall order him to be discharged. A June 2006 report from the Council of Europe estimated 100 people had been kidnapped by the CIA on EU territory with the cooperation of Council of Europe members, and rendered to other countries, often after having transited through secret detention centres “black sites” used by the CIA, some of which could be located in Europe.
Republic of China Taiwan
The BKA is represented in 50 countries and in a wide range of law enforcement organizations, including the INTERPOL General Secretariat. Delays in investigation also retard the process of submitting extradition requests, or invoking Interpol mechanisms like the Red Corner Notice RCN that help in locating and provisionally arresting offenders. But who made it to China, cannot be apprehended and forced to return to the U. China is so large and diverse that one can live any sort of lifestyle there. Confirmation of this is the corresponding written confirmation. The types of mutual legal assistance which the Philippines may provide in respect of criminal matters include. Attention: Office of the Chief State Counsel. Instead, the response drafted by the national authorities is broad and does not establish the specific criminal actions for which the Applicant is being sought in the framework of the proceedings at hand. Even if you aren’t an international spy, a government whistleblower, or a serial criminal you may still find yourself on the other side of the law. 302/2004; nevertheless, if authorised translations are not made in Romanian, the competent central authority proceeds to obtain the necessary translations. “Cash”means such coin or currency of the United States as at any time of payment is legal tender for the payment of public and privatedebts. 2 KB as part of the formal request. In these cases, the extradition process will continue to follow the EAW framework. Think of it as your “freedom insurance. Additional Information. She says this event could lead us into a “devastating spiral. Charged with: Murder of U. To get their hands on a fugitive, U. He is here to help you. Government’s Response to the House of Lords report 20 July 2015. This person will likely see you as who you were and would be more likely to make a mistake when trying out a new persona. C where the offense was committed”; Bolivian Extradition Treaty, art. When a government has an extradition treaty with another country, it may use extradition to track down fugitives and other wanted offenders who are engaged in crimes including terrorist activity, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, and cybercrime. Department of Foreign Affairs. Generally, Australian law enforcement officers can only arrest a person for an offence against Australian law. The consensus in international law is that a state does not have any obligation to surrender an alleged criminal to a foreign state, because one principle of sovereignty is that every state has legal authority over the people within its borders. However, the focus of this paper is on the surrender stage, following the committal hearing, when the Minister of Justice must decide whether or not to surrender the individual to the requesting state. KAY GRANGER R Texas will also chair the Appropriations Committee, which approves Pentagon funding.
International Students at the National Academy
If the individual claimed by one of the two High Contracting Parties in pursuance of the present Treaty should be also claimed by one or several other Powers, on account of other crimes or offences committed upon their respective territories, his extradition shall be granted to that State whose demand is earliest in date. Written authorisation to refer a case to the Extradition Unit should be given by a Unit Head which should confirm that. It is also not a part of the EU which means it offers a certain degree of privacy. All information on this website is for reference purposes only and does not constitute legal or tax advice. New Zealand is the closest country to Australia, but it does not have an extradition agreement with Australia. Once the extradition request is submitted to the foreign government, the United States does not control the pace of the proceedings. Text size: Smaller Bigger. US Foreign Assistance. US Foreign Assistance. Marshal Services has handled between 350 and 600 extraditions to the U. Other mechanisms that can facilitate arrest and extradition of offenders, viz. Suicide Risk: Cases where there is risk of the individual committing suicide have also invoked article 8 as the public interest of extraditing must be considered in light of the risk of suicide by the individual if extradited. There are a number of no extradition countries around the world, including Cuba, Ecuador, and Venezuela. 3 The Minister may at any time withdraw the authority to proceed and, if the Minister does so, the court shall discharge the person and set aside any order made respecting their judicial interim release or detention. If a request for extradition is made under this Treaty for a person who at the time of such request, or at the time of the commission of the offense for which extradition is sought, is under the age of eighteen years and is considered by the requested State to be one of its residents, the requested State, upon a determination that extradition would disrupt the social readjustment and rehabilitation of that person, may recommend to the requesting State that the request for extradition be withdrawn, specifying the reasons therefor. Interpol Law Firm has extensive connections in the EU, U. Other countries, like Switzerland, have extradition treaties but do not extradite for certain financial crimes—which is why financier Marc Rich and Billions’s Bobby Axelrod both fled there. There is not a shred of historical evidence that the US economy needs a 2.
Non extradition vs no extradition treaty
01 cv 662 AHS, October 2001, paragraphs 11 13 retrieved March 1, 2005. That’s why it’s only a thought experiment. A third scenario would be a bigger country pressurizing a smaller country to extradite a suspect even when no extradition treaty exists between the bigger and the smaller nation. They are big and powerful countries which can’t be pushed around. Ege is said to have a scar mark on his left arm and a black mole on his right hand. Extradition enables countries to apprehend fugitives and other wanted criminals involved in crimes such as terrorism, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, and cybercrime even if those fugitives are hiding halfway around the world—provided they are hiding in a country with which the first country has an extradition treaty. Russia had proposed a treaty with the United States asking for the mutual extradition of criminals—however, the U. Diffusions are circulated directly by a member country’s National Central Bureau to all or some other member countries. However, there are a few countries in the ASEAN region that do not have extradition treaties with the US. So, you combine high interest rates, low risk of extradition, and a reasonable economic situation, and what you get is an interesting option for a safe haven.
While, according to international law, each State has legal authority over people residing within its territories, many countries have extradition agreements in place with other countries around the world. Tried to extradite National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden from the semiautonomous Chinese city of Hong Kong. “It’s no defense to extradition to say, ‘I’m innocent. Professor Michael Kelly, citing Israeli and Austrian judicial decisions, has noted that “there is some supporting anecdotal evidence that judges within national systems are beginning to apply the doctrine on their own”. For example, Interpol staff can explain the specifics of national legislation, justice, etc. Securities and Exchange Commission @SECGov December 13, 2022. US Foreign Assistance. However, they do have the Extradition Act which allows them to extradite criminals if they are accused of crimes such as murder and rape. Federal Office of Justice. Western governments, however, are known to give up suspects when a powerful country like the US brings up charges against an individual. These countries often become havens for those sought by law enforcement officials. Website development by Robert Gourley. Delete your browser history as well as get rid of old former credit cards you left open. All information on this website is for reference purposes only and does not constitute legal or tax advice. INTERPOL is an association of 190 countries that promotes mutual assistance among law enforcement authorities to prevent and suppress international crime. What’s the difference between a Red Corner Notice and a Red Notice. Does not have an extradition treaty with China, Indonesia, Iran, Mongolia, Russia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Vietnam and other nations. US Foreign Assistance. China does not have an extradition treaty with the US. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of land along the western side of the Sahara Desert, between Morocco to the north and Mauritania to the south. Some of whom have been able to live high profile lives despite international arrest warrants being active against them for decades. After a person has been brought back to this State by or after waiver of extradition proceedings, the person may be tried in this State for other crimes which the person may be charged with having committed here as well as that specified in the requisition for extradition. Charged with: Count One – Passport FraudReward: None listed. Sandra GrossmanGrossman Young and Hammond,.
In many cases, individuals who have been granted asylum in a no extradition country are able to live without fear of being returned to their home country and facing imprisonment or torture. Had never extradited any Russian fugitives who had taken asylum in the United States, there was no established precedent to follow. The Act is divided into five parts. Each year for about the past dozen years. The DoJandCD: National Office, Momentum Center, 329 Pretorius Street, PretoriaPresidential Hotline: 17737Anti Fraud and Corruption Hotline: 0800 701 701. If the Bahamas agrees to extradite Bankman Fried, the country would surrender the former FTX CEO to the U. 69 at the time of writing, having recorded a 10. The United States does not have extradition treaties with the following polities that it does not recognize as sovereign states either. When the General Secretariat processes one or more items of information concerning the one or more persons involved or likely to be involved in one or more linked criminal cases being processed by the Organization, it shall link those items of information, unless the source of the information expressly opposes such linking, in conformity with Article 5. General power of Minister to release. Request for a preliminary ruling from the Oberlandesgericht München. At times though very rarely, a powerful country can simply invade a smaller country and capture the suspect. The best time to buy is when there’s blood in the streets. Council Act of 10 March 1995, adopted on the basis of Art K. Outside of Office Hours, contact: 507 317 5000. 1 In urgent cases the person sought may, in accordance with the law of the Requested State, be provisionally arrested on the application of the competent authorities of the Requesting State. If two states that are party to a bilateral listextradition treaty are also party to a multilateral convention, themultilateral convention will supplement the list treaty to make extraditablethe offense that is the subject of the convention. Generally speaking, for an extradition to succeed, the alleged criminal act can’t be political in nature and must be a crime in both jurisdictions, and the suspect cannot be in danger of receiving the death penalty or torture if transferred. US Foreign Assistance. Carole Ghosn emerged as a new face in the midst of the uproar. Let’s face it, China and Russia aren’t exactly best buddies with the US or western democracies. The list can alert the public to be watchful, and generates publicity for the agency. Even a casual reading of the former Secretary of State Pompeo’s announcement may lead one to conclude that there is no legal or factual basis for the designation of Cuba as a State Sponsor of Terrorism. There are some countries that do not allow extradition, which means that they will not send criminals back to their home countries if they are accused of a crime. Nde Sambone Directeur de l’ANIF Tel: 237 22 22 16 81 and 237 22 22 16 83 Fax: 237 22 22 16 81 Email: Website: Languages: English, French Commission Nationale Anti Corruption CONAC Boîte Postale 33200 Yaoundé Cameroun Name of service to be contacted: Secrétariat Permanent de la CONAC Name of person to be contacted: Mr. Non extradition countries are countries that have not entered into an extradition treaty between them for the return of fugitives from either country. Although OIA must ensure that each extradition request strictly adheres to treaty, legal, and procedural requirements, OIA staff use discretion to develop a course of action based on the circumstances of each particular case. Not all crime is extraditable, however, the following are the crimes that are considered by Thailand and the requesting country to be eligible for extradition: A crime punishable by death, or A crime punishable by imprisonment of one year or moreExtradition for less serious offences will also be considered if they relate to the commission of serious offences as defined above.
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INTERPOL maintains a most wanted list for a list of criminals and alleged criminals who are purported to be at large. Generally speaking, for an extradition to succeed, the alleged criminal act can’t be political in nature and must be a crime in both jurisdictions, and the suspect cannot be in danger of receiving the death penalty or torture if transferred. You can check INTERPOL’s website under the ‘wanted persons’ section. But who made it to China, cannot be apprehended and forced to return to the U. Mcafee later made other errors that led to his arrest in Spain. A fugitive can be charged with escape when trying to break out of the following. However, requests for the extradition of a person from Fiji must be sent to the Attorney General through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. While this article is useful as it provide for a prohibition to extradition, the threshold required to meet this prohibition is high. Client B left Dubai some years ago but has recently discovered that a red notice was issued in his name. International extradition is considerably different from interstate or intrastate extradition. The French Polish national has since been residing in France.
Citizens abroad, including arrest cases and CPAS passport andcitizenship services when the extradition of a U. When the habeas petition contests the decision of an extradition magistrate, the individual must argue that his detention and surrender to a foreign country violates the United States Constitution, the applicable extradition treaty, or a federal statute. China claims Taiwan is a breakaway republic and should be treated as part of China. Government has labeled a “domestic terrorist,” it might not be implausible. The requested person may make any representations as to why they should not be extradited within 4 weeks of the case being sent to the Secretary of State. US Foreign Assistance. Countries like Cuba and the United States have an extradition treaty in place. Extradition treaties also outline the process of requesting and processing an extradition between the two countries. US Foreign Assistance. US Foreign Assistance. Its complexity arises from the fact that while the court deciding whether to surrender the individual must uphold these rights this same court must also be satisfied that any trial undertaken by the requesting state after extradition is granted also respects these rights. Extradition enables countries to apprehend fugitives and other wanted criminals involved in crimes such as terrorism, counterfeiting, drug trafficking, and cybercrime even if those fugitives are hiding halfway around the world—provided they are hiding in a country with which the first country has an extradition treaty. The bill, which would ease extradition to Mainland China, includes 37 types of crimes. If the surrender will take place to a state which does not surrender its own nationals to Norway, however, transit may be refused if the wanted person is a Norwegian national, cf. However, your rights as an accused person do not change. Neighbors like Serbia and Croatia do and that makes Montenegro a better option. In fact, Brazil is one of the easiest places to become a citizen through naturalisation, so perhaps that is also something to consider. US Foreign Assistance. 1397, provided that: “The Secretary of State shall ensure that the Country Plan for the United States diplomatic mission in each major illicit drug producing country and in each major drug transit country as those terms are defined in section 481i of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 includes, as an objective to be pursued by the mission. In 1991, the NKR declared independence from Azerbaijan, but this has not been recognized by the international community. Another good non extradition country to mention is Mongolia, which is sandwiched between China and Russia. The weather may be desert hot, but it isn’t a shabby place to lay low for a while. If you travel with someone your chances of getting caught increase dramatically. Through investigative and police actions the company who ordered the load was identified, which was “D Cont” with the legal representative D. Although the United States takes the view that an explicit treaty provision is unnecessary,93 extradition treaties sometimes expressly authorize requests for provisional arrest of a fugitive prior to delivery of a formal request for extradition. Has bilateral extradition agreements with over 107 countries. Written by Offshore Protection.
IMAGE: A logo at the Interpol Global Complex for Innovation in Singapore at its opening ceremony in April 2015 The center was established to strengthen global efforts to fight increasingly tech savvy international criminals Photo by ROSLAN RAHMAN/AFP/Getty Images
Extradition is the transfer of a person from one country to another in respect of criminal proceedings. This Order may be cited as the Brazil Extradition Order 1997 and shall come into force on a date to be notified in the London, Edinburgh and Belfast Gazettes. Where the requested person provides sufficient information for the court to determine that the forum bar is engaged, the court may ask the Extradition Unit to provide further information to assist in deciding whether a substantial measure of the relevant activity occurred within the UK. Whistleblower Edward Snowden, a former Central Intelligence Agency CIA employee who first flew to Hong Kong and then leaked highly classified information from the National Security Agency NSA in 2013. Venezuela Bolivarian Republic of. While there are many things that need to be planned in order to pull off a quick escape that might help you disappear like having a survival kit, bug out bag, a proper disguise, but the most important is where you decide to disappear. US Foreign Assistance. The UAE is infamous for its overuse of Interpol Red Notices against individuals with outstanding debt. In Switzerland, extradition proceedings are regulated in the first place by multilateral or bilateral treaties as well as, in certain cases, by declarations of reciprocity. The extradition process is notoriously arduous in France. Behind this emerging protection of nationals from extradition was the idea that one had a fundamental right to be tried by the judge of one’s own country. Or you might fall within sight of an armed drone. So, once a suspect has been arrested, they can challenge the lawfulness of the request. All articles seized which were in the possession of the person to be surrendered at the time of his apprehension, and any articles that may serve as a proof of the crime or offence shall be given up when the extradition takes place, in so far as this may be permitted by the law of the State granting the extradition. The dates of the Sessions are published on INTERPOL’s website here. The federal government of the United States is a separate jurisdiction from the states with limited scope, but has nationwide law enforcement presence. In addition, travel by airplane in the United States subjects one to federal law, as all airports are subject to not only state jurisdiction but also federal jurisdiction under the Air Commerce Act and other acts. Uganda also has similar characteristics as Botswana and Ethiopia. No countryin the world has an extradition treaty with all other countries; for example,the United States lacks extradition treaties with several nations, includingthe People’s Republic of China, Namibia, the United Arab Emirates, North Korea,Cuba, Bahrain and Russia, unfortunately. Added Kuwait to Category 2 Type B territories. Therefore, it makes sense to choose a country that does not have an extradition treaty with the US. It is always best to read up on countries which do not have formal extradition arrangements with your home country before diving deep into researching a particular destination. However, if the competing requests are based on different offences, the request that must take priority is chosen with regards to all factual circumstances and, in particular, the gravity and the place of the offence, the date of the requests, and the undertaking which one of the requesting States has made to carry out a re extradition. Gates was issued with a second notice later in the episode, when the investigation into his activities was widened. South Africa has also designated Ireland, Zimbabwe, Namibia and the United Kingdom in terms of section 32 of the Extradition Act. Here are 10 quirks of the system. Al Munawar was indicted in the District of Columbia for his alleged role in the September 5, 1986, hijacking of Pan American World Airways Flight 73 during a stop in Karachi, Pakistan. 2 of the current Act with respect to judicial review of a surrender order of the Minister of Justice. In order to decrease the risk of being found by a governmental or policing agency, you need to learn how to disappear. Queries in relation to mutual legal assistance may be sent to the correspondence address and fax number above, or sent by email to.
Victims identified in deadly Autauga County tornado
Extracts of notices may also be published on Interpol’s public website if the requesting entity agrees. However, burglary and arson were listed as eligible offenses, so anyone suspected of those crimes could be apprehended by Canadian officials and handed over to U. Do you have a red mark in the Interpol database. If there is an extradition agreement in place and a person commits a crime and then hightails it overseas — and the US government finds you — they can work with the foreign government in order to get the person back to the United States by way of extradition. Home l About the Unit l Contact Details l Service of Process l Documents l Scope of Work l Treaties l Extraditions l Bilateral agreements l International Maintenance l The Hague Convention l Links. In cases of urgent requests, a copy of the request may also be sent by fax to +63 2 5252218 or emailed to. In a 1987 case, Puerto Rico v. However, items seized are unlikely to be handed over as evidence until the person is surrendered. US Foreign Assistance. Typically, Article 31of the above mentioned Extradition Treaty between France and the US provides that ‘here is no obligation upon the Requested State to grant the extradition of a person who is a national of the Requested State, but the executive authority of the United States shall have the power to surrender a national of the United States if, in its discretion, it deems it proper to do so. If it decides that extradition might be granted, it passes on the request to the competent court to rule on the admissibility of the request. By virtue of such jurisdiction, they can locally prosecute and try citizens accused of crimes committed abroad as if the crime had occurred within the country’s borders see, e. While Brunei does have some strict social codes and Islam is the main religion there, if you follow all the customs and social rules, then you might just find the country to be a decent option for a short or long stay. Proceedings relying on the 1957 Convention on Extradition take far longer. At the request of the State of California expedited through the State Department of the United States, Polanski was detained pending removal from Switzerland to the United States and then ultimately to California. The CCF’s most notable function, however, is to consider legal petitions submitted by individuals requesting the revocation of red notices. In France, it was affirmed for the first time in an 1834 bilateral treaty with Belgium. 3D printed guns are illegal from the moment of creation because they lack serial numbers and are not submitted to any official test bench. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. When the two countries involved lack a formal treaty, but have existing diplomatic relations, extradition is entirely possible, but with reduced likelihood. Reuters reported that his lawyer read an affidavit in which Bankman Fried said that he had decided to agree to extradition in part out of a “desire to make the relevant customers whole”. There is nothing else comparable. PRIMARY DUTIESThe Strategic and Business Planning Unit EDPP/PLD/SBP works to refine the organizationalplanning process of INTERPOL and to strengthen its strategic planning capabilities. B having entered into a recognisance or bail bond for his appearance before a court in that place for the trial of the offence, he has failed to appear in pursuance of the recognisance or bail bond, or. How deep down the rabbit hole you go will all depend upon your circumstances and who is after you. При торжестве Царства. Germany becomes the second country in Europe to have an extradition treaty with India. However, the question of consent must be processed in writing, unless the court decides on an oral hearing. If sentenced, he could face the rest of his life in prison.
Extradition, Mutual Legal Assistance and Interpol
Dubai court orders Sanjay Shah, others to pay Denmark $1 billion. The wanted person and the Norwegian Correctional Service must be consulted before such a condition is stipulated. Immigration consequences in the form of visa denials, revocations and cancellations, bond denials, and delays in the processing of applications such as those for asylum. Many Nigerians have the opportunity to travel to Ghana because it is a West African nation. Interpol does not have executive powers, so Interpol official do not arrest suspects or act without the approval of national authorities. Marshal Services has handled between 350 and 600 extraditions to the U. For instance, in the United States, most criminal prosecutions occur at the state level, and most foreign relations occur at the federal level. ABC news recently reported that the Florida Department of Law Enforcement confirmed that Florida had in excess of 325,000 outstanding warrants in the NCIC computer system. Prosecutors should consider all relevant factors and available options as part of the case strategy from the outset. An order for extradition or an order discharging the extradition case against the requested person. These impacts can include damage to property, travel delays and cancellations, loss of water supplies, power cuts and, in the most severe cases, bring a danger to life. All three offer excellent lifestyle and business opportunities, and are ideal safe havens, as they do not have extradition treaties.